Relações musicais nos séculos XVII, XVIII e XIX – Vol. I: Americantiga Coro e Orquestra de Câmara – Música Brasileira e Portuguesa do Século XVIII (Acervo PQPBach)

syo2dc Repostagem com novos a atualizados links.

Com instrumentos de época. On period instruments.

Existem pessoas que desde cedo mostram o seu talento. Ricardo Bernardes é um caso típico. Nascido em 1976, natural de Curitiba, PR, regente e musicólogo, mestre em Musicologia pela Universidade de São Paulo (USP) está concluindo o doutorado em Musicologia na University of Texas at Austin e na Universidade Nova de Lisboa e é o foco desta postagem, pois ainda jovem e já realizou muita coisa.

Em 1995, com apenas 19 anos, criou o Americantiga Coro e Orquestra de Câmara, grupo especializado em interpretar o repertório musical brasileiro, português e hispano-americano dos séculos XVI ao início do XIX. Este grupo formado por jovens cantores e instrumentistas realiza concertos no Brasil e no exterior, possui uma trilogia em CD’s: Música Brasileira e Portuguesa do Século XVIII, lançado em 1998, Compositores Brasileiros, Portugueses e Italianos do Século XVIII, de 2002 e Música em São Paulo e Lisboa no Século XVIII, de 2004.

Ainda em 1995 realizou seu primeiro trabalho na área de musicologia escrevendo junto com Harry Crowl a reorquestração do Te Deum Laudamus do compositor pernambucano Luís Álvares Pinto, para versão gravada em CD pela Camerata Antiqua de Curitiba. Em 1999, acompanhou o trabalho de Willian Christie, diretor do grupo Les Arts Florissants durante a produção e montagem da ópera Les Indes Galants, na Ópera de Paris – Palais Garnier. Em 2000 assume a regência da Orquestra de Câmara São Paulo, em que atuará por um ano sob a direção artística de Luís Fernando Malheiro. Em 2001, participa de curso de interpretação musical de época com ênfase na produção napolitana dos séculos XVII e XVIII, ministrado por Antonio Florio e Capella della Pietà dei Turchinni, na Fundação Royaumont na França. Especializa-se na Universidade de Bari, Itália nos anos de 2001 e 2002, sob a orientação de um dos maiores musicólogos europeus, Dinko Fabris, em edição musical do repertório italiano dos séculos XVII e XVIII. Em junho de 2002, inaugura a I Temporada Américantiga de Concertos no Mosteiro de São Bento na cidade de São Paulo, realizando três programas de concertos diferentes como diretor musical do Américantiga Coro e Orquestra de Câmara.

Como musicólogo e pesquisador da FUNARTE, em 2002, coordenou a pesquisa em vários acervos musicais para a Coleção Música no Brasil – séculos XVIII e XIX , em convênios com instituições e bibliotecas do Brasil e Europa e a participação de vários pesquisadores brasileiros e realizou a digitalização das partituras das óperas Salvador Rosa e Colombo do compositor brasileiro Antônio Carlos Gomes.

Ricardo Bernardes volta a Buenos Aires nesta semana, quando irá reger e gravar com instrumentos de época, a Missa em Ré Maior do Pe. João de Deus de Castro Lobo.

Veja algumas obras do Americantiga no Youtube.

O CD da presente postagem mereceu de Irineu Franco Perpétuo a seguinte apresentação no encarte: “Dentre os grupos que têm se dedicado à música colonial brasileira, o Americantiga se destaca por aplicar a este repertório, com clarividência e critério, as conquistas e descobertas interpretativas e musicológicas da assim chamada escola de “música de época”. Mais do que a qualidade rara e excepcional das jovens vozes, o Americantiga conquista pela maneira criteriosa e séria pela qual estas são postas a serviço de um repertório ainda carente de ser descoberto e, principalmente, compreendido. Todas as escolhas de interpretação estão baseadas em pesquisa musicológica de extrema erudição e acuidade, com as vaidades pessoais cedendo lugar ao rigor e precisão“.

Ainda no encarte, Harry Crowl complementa: “As obras apresentadas neste CD são o resultado de anos de pesquisa levadas a cabo em Minas, com o apoio da Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, assim como no Rio de Janeiro e em Lisboa. Primeiramente, realizadas por mim e, em seguida também por Ricardo Bernardes, regente e diretor artístico do conjunto, que realizou incansáveis viagens ao Rio com a intenção de levantar obras inéditas do Pe. José Maurício Nunes Garcia. Temos aqui a satisfação de ver algumas das primeiras gravações mundiais de obras compostas tanto no Brasil quanto em Portugal“.

Duarte Lobo (Évora, 1565-Lisboa, 1615)
01. Pater Peccavi
Anônimo (Portugal, Séc. XVII?)
02. Pueri Hebreorum
Ignacio Parreiras Neves (Vila Rica, atual Ouro Preto, 1736-1790)
03. Oratória ao Menino Deus na Noite de Natal – 1. Coro
04. Oratória ao Menino Deus na Noite de Natal – 2. Aria a duo (soprano e contralto)
05. Oratória ao Menino Deus na Noite de Natal – 3. Aria a 3 (soprano, contralto e baixo)
06. Oratória ao Menino Deus na Noite de Natal – 4. Coro

André da Silva Gomes (Lisboa, 1752 – São Paulo, SP, 1844)
07. Veni Sancte Spiritus
João de Souza Carvalho (Estremoz, Portugal, 1745-Alentejo, 1798)
08. Stellae in Caelis Obscurantur
Francisco de Paula Miranda (S. João del Rey, séc. XVIII-XIX)
09. Laudate Dominum
Pe. José Maurício Nunes Garcia (1767-1830, Rio de Janeiro, RJ)
10. Domine Jesu
11. Te Christe Solum Novimus (1800)
12. Te Deum (1799?)

Música Brasileira e Portuguesa do Século XVIII – 1998
Relações musicais nos séculos XVII, XVIII e XIX – Vol. I
Americantiga Coro e Orquestra de Câmara
Regente: Ricardo Bernardes
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Masterpieces of Portuguese Polyphony: The William Byrd Choir

Masterpieces of Portuguese Polyphony
The William Byrd Choir

Há certa ironia no fato de que a música portuguesa tenha tido sua melhor fase justamente nos anos da dominação espanhola (1580 a 1640). No entanto, apesar de Felipe II da Espanha ter patrocinado generosamente os músicos de seu novo domínio, foi a família ducal dos Bragança – o Cardeal Henrique e sobretudo o duque João, que seria o rei Dom João IV depois da restauração – quem mais encorajou os mestres músicos que são a glória da música sacra portuguesa na primeira metade do século 17.

Duarte Lôbo, Filipe de Magalhães, o frade carmelita Manuel Cardoso, Lopes Morago, Brito, Francisco Martins e o monge Pedro de Cristo foram a figuras mais representativas nesse período que se inicia quando Palestrina vivia seus últimos dias e termina algum tempo depois da morte de Monteverdi.

Seu estilo é fortemente conservador, sendo um genuíno desenvolvimento direto daquilo que chamamos hoje de “polifonia renascentista”; levaram adiante a tradição de Morales, de Palestrina, de Guerrero (muito querido pelos compositores portugueses posteriores) e de [Tomás Luis de] Victoria. Seus contemporâneos espanhóis são Vivanco, López de Velasco, Carlos Patiño, entre outros. Foi somente mais tarde, em meados do século 17, que João Lourenço Rebelo, Pedro Vaz Rego e Diogo Dias Melgás “alncançaram” as gerações “barrocas” espanholas que se iniciam com Mateo Romero e com Cererols, e chegam até José de Torres y Martínez Bravo e a Francisco Valls.

O repertório de um coro de catedral portuguesa na década de 1630 é tipificado pelo inventário de 1635 encontrado em Coimbra. Ele enumera livros de motetos e de missas de Victoria, missas e magnificats de Duarte Lôbo e de Magalhães, e missas de Cardoso. Os espanhóis se encontram representados aí por livros de missas de Alonso Lobo, Juan Esquivel e dos mestres mais antigos Morales e Guerrero. Também se encontravam os livros de música para Vésperas publicados por Navarro e Esquivel, junto com música de Philippe Rogier, nascido nos Países Baixos e mestre da Capilla Flamenca em Madri.

Quer dizer: um repertório fortemente ibérico. De fora, nem mesmo Palestrina está incluído, embora sua música fosse bem conhecida e usada desde há muito na Espanha e em Portugal.

DUARTE LÔBO (que não deve ser confundido com o espanhol Alonso Lobo, e também conhecido pela forma latinizada Eduardus Lupus) foi o compositor português mais conhecido em sua época; suas obras eram bastante executadas em seu próprio país e nos Países Baixos espanhóis, bem como no México e Guatemala. Nasceu em 1565 ou 67, e morreu em 1646. Lôbo estudou com Manuel Mendes no famoso Colégio da Claustra de Évora, cidade em que também foi cantor e por um breve período diretor do coro da catedral. Mudou-se para Lisboa para encarregar-se da música no Hospital Real, e em 1594 se tornou mestre de capela na catedral dessa capital, onde também lecionou no Colégio da Claustra, mantendo esses vários cargos, respeitadíssimo, até a sua aposentadoria, quando passou a dirigir a música no Seminário de São Bartolomeu até sua morte.

As obras de Lôbo que sobreviveram incluem suas edições de textos e de cantochão para o Ofício dos Mortos (Lisboa, 1603) e o Processional de Lisboa (1607), e sua aprovação aparece em diversas publicações de métodos de cantochão e num Passionário (coleção de cantos para a Semana Santa) de 1595. Suas próprias composições, além disso, foram belamente impressas – na verdade até suntuosamente – pela firma Plantin de Antuérpia.

Os dezesseis arranjos de Lôbo para o Magnificat foram publicados em 1605. São concisos e breves, e portanto totalmente adequados para os serviços regulares das Vésperas. Em 1621 e 1639 vieram à luz os livros de missas. Estas vão de curtas e simples até obras elaboradas e imponentes para cinco, seix e oito vozes. Os dois missais se encerram com uma Missa pro Defunctis e alguns motetos fúnebres. As missas são treze, sem contar os arranjos do Requiem.

A Missa de Requiem de 1621 é a oito vozes, a de 1639 é a seis, tendo esta uma característica incomum na época que é a alternância de cantochão e polifonia no Dies Irae. A de 1621 não é para dois coros separados, embora ocorram momentos antifonais entre os dois grupos. As vozes são duas de soprano, duas de contralto, duas de tenor e duas de baixo. A edição de 1621 incluir as entoações, incipits e versos  em cantochão, e com isso se pode ver que a polifonia é estreitamente relacionada às antigas melodias dos cantos, que são citadas ou parafraseadas com frequência.

Em momentos breves porém frequentes, Lobo raleia sua textura de oito vozes; sua harmonia é bem simples porém muito firme, com linhas de baixo direcionadas com decisão. O efeito geral termina sendo de homofonia, mas encontramos uma abordagem contrapontística bastante viva no gradual e no ofertório. No verso ‘In memoria’ do gradual encontramos um trio livremente fluente, mas no restante são empregadas todas as oito vozes. Os movimentos inicial e final são extremamente simples: temos aí o tipo de música que parece nada quando vista no papel, mas quando executada mostra grande dignidade e atmosfera. A música é exatamente o que Lôbo, sacerdote e compositor por profissão, pretendia que fosse: totalmente adequada à Missa de Réquiem – os solenes ritos funerais ou memoriais da Igreja Católica.

A maior parte da edições da Missa de Réquiem nos séculos 16 e 17 traziam em anexo um ou mais motetos apropriados para funerais, e nesse sentido esta gravação traz Audivi vocem de caelo, uma obra a seis vozes que conclui o Liber Missarum de Lôbo publicado em 1621.

FILIPE DE MAGALHÃES, como seu contemporâneo Lôbo, foi aluno e corista em Évora, tendo cantado no coro da catedral e no Colégio da Claustra. Aí Magalhães se tornou o aluno predileto de Manuel Mendes, e em 1605 herdou toda a coleção musical de seu antigo professor. Tendo se mudado para Lisboa para ser cantor na Capela Real, tornou-se seu mestre de capela em 1623. Aposentou-se em 1641, um ano depois da Restauração em que o Duque João de Bragança tornou-se rei. Muitas de suas obras devem ter sido perdidas no grande terremoto de 1755; sabemos de diversas delas, inclusive uma missa a oito vozes, pelos catálogos da grande biblioteca musical de Dom João IV.

Ao contrário de Duarte Lôbo, Magalhães teve dois volumes de sua música impressos em Lisboa, e não em Antuérpia. A qualidade dos tipos e da impressão são pobres em comparação com os livros de Lôbo editados por Plantin, mas a música em si apresenta a alta qualidade e expressividade que levaram alguns escritores modernos a aclamar Magalhães como o maior dos compositores de Portugal.

Em 1636 Magalhães publicou seu volume de Magnificats, e seu Missarum Liber também vem claramente datado de 1636 na página de rosto. São esses dois livros que contêm a maior parte da música de Magalhães que chegou até nós. Encontramos aí sete missas para quatro ou cinco vozes, algumas das quais com um elaborado segundo arranjo do Agnus Dei. Curiosamente, as palavras finais dona nobis pacem [‘dá-nos a paz’] nunca aparecem nessas obras, mesmo quando existe um tal segundo Agnus Dei.

Por outro lado, todas as missas possuem dois movimentos claramente separados para o Christe Eleison, no que são similares a todas as outras missas compostas em Portugal nesse período. Não é nem um pouco claro se isso indica a possibilidade de alternância com cantochão, inclusive porque lá onde isso seria mais provável – no Réquiem baseado em cantochão – somos pegos de surpresa por apenas um Christe.

Sua Missa pro Defunctis gravada aqui é para seis vozes e é seguida pelo altamente expressivo moteto a seis vozes ‘Comissa mea pavesco’ que conclui o volume [presente também no CD Masters of the Royal Chapel, postado em 28/06].

O Ordinário da Missa executada nesta gravação é uma continuação típica da tradição de Palestrina e de Victoria, do final do século 16. A Missa Dilectus Meus foi baseada em um moteto ainda não encontrado. Está escrita para coro a cinco vozes, o soprano dividido (SSATB). Essa divisão de vozes é usada completa a maior parte do tempo, mas no Crucifixus do Credo é reduzida a SSAT, e no Benedictus a SAT [ambos sem baixo]. O Hosanna é em compasso ternário.

O segundo Agnus Dei [ver acima] é escrito para seis vozes, agora com divisão também nos altos [SSAATB]. A voz do tenor segue a parte do primeiro soprano em um cânon à oitava estrito. A música flui em um estilo polifônico sereno e efetivo, um belo exemplo do conservador stile antico praticado em Portugal.

A gravação se conclui com o moteto fúnebre Comissa mea pavesco, uma obra magistral, de uma escrita confiante, segura na sua sucessão de temas elaborados sem pressa, com um espírito penitencial tocante porém cheio de dignidade.

(Bruno Turner, 1986 – extraído do encarte. Traduzido do inglês e do alemão pelo Prof. Ralf Rickli <rrtrop@gmail.com> especialmente para esta postagem. Não tem preço!!)

Masterpieces of Portuguese Polyphony: The William Byrd Choir
Duarte Lôbo (Portugal, c1565-1646; Latinized as Eduardus Lupus)
01. Missa Pro defunctis ‘Requiem’ – Movement 1: Introitus. Requiem aeternam
02. Missa Pro defunctis ‘Requiem’ – Movement 2: Kyrie
03. Missa Pro defunctis ‘Requiem’ – Movement 3: Graduale. Requiem aeternam
04. Missa Pro defunctis ‘Requiem’ – Movement 4: Offertorium. Domine, Jesu Christe
05. Missa Pro defunctis ‘Requiem’ – Movement 5: Sanctus
06. Missa Pro defunctis ‘Requiem’ – Movement 6: Agnus Dei
07. Missa Pro defunctis ‘Requiem’ – Movement 7: Communio. Lux aeterna
08. Audivi vocem de caelo

Filipe de Magalhães (Portugal, c1571-1652)
09. Missa Dilectus meus – Movement 1: Kyrie
10. Missa Dilectus meus – Movement 2: Gloria
11. Missa Dilectus meus – Movement 3: Credo
12. Missa Dilectus meus – Movement 4: Sanctus
13. Missa Dilectus meus – Movement 5: Benedictus
14. Missa Dilectus meus – Movement 6: Agnus Dei
15. Commissa mea pavesco

Masterpieces of Portuguese Polyphony: The William Byrd Choir – 2005
The William Byrd Choir
Director: Gavin Turner

Recorded in All Hallows, Gospel Oak, London, on 2 & 4 June 1986

A recording sponsored by The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, to commemorate the 600th anniversary of The Treaty of Windsor between England and Portugal

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The Tallis Scholars Sing Iberian Requiems

Having recorded the Victoria, it seemed logical for us to continue with the best of the Portuguese settings, which eventually led us to make discs of the Cardoso Requiem and the six-voice version by Duarte Lôbo.

Settings of the Requiem Mass are among the most frequent requests for concert music. This may seem unlikely, given the subject matter, but in fact it is just that subject matter which makes them so compelling. There is a drama inherent in the text which never fails to move audiences, having, in the first place, brought out the best in the composer. It is not a modern kind of drama such as we are used to seeing in the cinema or on television, but rather of the opposite: of the light which is shining on the deceased (whose body would have been present in the original performances), of the immediacy of heaven, of the peace which death will bring. Put in words this may sound a bit far-fetched, but from the split second that the opening ‘Requiem aeternam’ chant is heard, every listener is inevitably transported. It is a classic instance of the power of music over every other art-form to communicate without reserve.

This drama gradually moves through different stages as the music proceeds. The essential mood is the one of the opening – long-held chords inviting the contemplation of eternal rest. This is the Requiem’s alternative to the atmosphere of desperation, noise and betrayal which underpins so many television thrillers. It returns at regular intervals – in the Gradual, the Sanctus and Agnus Dei, through the promise of perpetual light in the Communion – but is interrupted in the Offertory and the Responsory by the thought of what will happen if Christ does not deliver the departed soul from the pains of hell. In every setting the ‘essential mood’ becomes unbearably intensified in these passages, though the musical style may not change very much. One recoils from the ‘poenis inferni’ (the ‘pains of hell’), the ‘ore leonis’ (the ‘lion’s mouth’), the ‘dies irae, calamitatis et miseriae’ (the ‘day of wrath, calamity and woe’). Indeed the Responsory represents a mini-drama within the whole, piling agony on agony as the pace of the music quickens by alternating brief chant passages with abbreviated polyphony. But in both the Offertory and the Responsory calm is restored by the idea of light: ‘let Saint Michael bring them forth into Thy holy light’ in the Offertory, and ‘lux perpetua’ (‘light perpetual’) in the Responsory.

The main reason why Victoria’s six-voice Requiem is one of the greatest masterpieces of the entire renaissance period is that this mood perfectly summed up the composer’s view of life and death. There was no better text for a committed Catholic priest to set. In doing so Victoria created a sound-world which, although it was not original, gained a dimension not imagined before. In fact the Requiem (or Missa pro defunctis) had long been a favourite text of Iberian composers, from the late fifteenth-century setting of Pedro de Escobar onwards. This continued through the sixteenth century with, in particular, two versions by Morales, through to the High Renaissance and the setting by Guerrero amongst others. By the early years of the various ways to take up the possibilities inherent in the Victoria. There remain quite a few more, in particular the six-voice setting by Felipe de Magalhães and the eight-voice of Lôbo. This set represents the first time the fruits of this mini-project have been made available together.

The Tallis Scholars Sing Iberian Requiems

Victoria wrote his Requiem for the funeral in 1603 of the Dowager Empress Maria, daughter of Charles V, wife of Maximilian II, mother of two emperors and sister of Philip II of Spain. For some years Victoria had been her chaplain. The music was published in 1605 in a print which contained nothing other than the movements associated with the funeral service, though some of these were extra to the normal sequence. In particular Victoria included the four-voice Taedet animam meam and the six-voice Versa est in luctum, though no one is entirely sure when these would have been sung. We omit the Taedet here not least because its style is very different from that of the Requiem proper, but include the Versa est in luctum as a postlude.

It is the six-voice texture (SSATTB) of the Victoria, used in long sustained chords which hide a plainchant melody in one of the soprano parts, that sets the scene for the Evora compositions. Both the Cardoso and the Lôbo apparently begin as carbon copies of the Victoria, the music expanding from the plainchant ‘requiem aeternam’ as it were from a single point with infinite spaciousness. In fact the musical language of these Portuguese writers is not entirely derivative. The Cardoso in particular stakes out its own harmonic territory in that first phrase, making towards an augmented chord which suggests a date of composition well after Victoria’s time. It was this chord which so struck listeners when the original disc of this music was released by Gimell in 1990, establishing Cardoso (c.1566–1650) for the first time as a major figure of the period. This Requiem was published in 1625, but it is not known for whose obsequies it was written. The Requiem proper follows Victoria in being scored for six voices (SSAATB in this case); the concluding Responsory Libera me however reduces to four (SATB).

Duarte Lôbo (c.1565–1646) was an exact contemporary of Cardoso, who must therefore have been a close colleague in both Evora and Lisbon. His penchant was for full sonority, as shown in both of his Requiem settings: the eight-voice (not recorded here) technically follows the trendy double choir baroque format of the time, but in fact proceeds for much of its length in eight-part counterpoint. His six-voice Requiem is apparently a later work – published in 1639 as opposed to the 1621 of the eight-voice – but simply continues the dense and sonorous idiom of his earlier years. His six-voice choir is SAATTB, which emphasizes the denseness, though he continued to put the chant in the single soprano part, instead of the more usual tenor, as both Victoria and Cardoso had done before him. The final Responsory, to different words, again sees a reduction to four voices.

To fill out the Iberian picture of these two discs, we have included four motets each by Cardoso and the Spanish composer Alonso Lobo (1555–1617, not related to Duarte). Two of the Cardoso motets, Non mortui and Sitivit anima mea, originally appeared in the same publication as his Requiem (1625) and therefore, since that book only contained Mass-settings, were obviously viewed as an integral part of the funeral rite. The other two Cardoso motets have more general texts, though Nos autem gloriari would not be out of place at the conclusion of a funeral or memorial service. Similarly two of the Alonso Lobo items are associated with the Requiem, most obviously his magnificent Versa est in luctum which may be compared with that of Victoria (Disc One, Track 9). Lobo’s setting does not appear to have belonged to a Missa pro defunctis proper, though his Credo quod redemptor (Track 14) is also associated with the service of Matins for the Dead. Vivo ego is a more general text within the period of Lent. Lobo’s Ave Maria is a masterpiece of a rather different kind, being based on a complex canon 8 in 4 at the upper fifth. Although the eight voices are divided into two choirs and the bottom part of each choir sings the same music, the other three voices are rearranged: the top part of the choir which begins becomes the third part in the choir which responds, the second part of choir I becomes the top part of choir II and the third part of choir I becomes the second part of choir II. Yet despite the mathematical intricacies the resulting music seems artlessly serene, as befits the text. It culminates in the most perfect ‘Amen’, where the beauty inherent in these canons is particularly telling.
(Peter Phillips, extraído do encarte)

Tomás Luis de Victoria (Spain, 1548-1611)
01. Requiem 1. Introitus: Requiem aeternam
02. Requiem 2. Kyrie
03. Requiem 3. Graduale: Requiem aeternam
04. Requiem 4. Offertorium: Domine Iesu Christe
05. Requiem 5. Sanctus & Benedictus
06. Requiem 6. Agnus Dei I, II & III
07. Requiem 7. Communio: Lux aeterna
08. Requiem 8. Responsorium: Libera me
09. Versa est in luctum

Duarte Lobo (Évora, 1565-Lisboa, 1615)
10. Requiem for six voices 1. Introitus: Requiem aeternam
11. Requiem for six voices 2. Kyrie
12. Requiem for six voices 3. Graduale: Requiem aeternam
13. Requiem for six voices 4. Sequentia pro defunctis: Dies irae
14. Requiem for six voices 5. Offertorium: Domine, Iesu Christe
15. Requiem for six voices 6. Sanctus & Benedictus
16. Requiem for six voices 7. Agnus Dei I, II & III
17. Requiem for six voices 8. Communio: Lux aeterna
18. Requiem for six voices 9. Responsorium pro defunctis: Memento mei

Fr. Manuel Cardoso (Portugal, 1571-1650)
19. Requiem 1. Introitus: Requiem aeternam
20. Requiem 2. Kyrie
21. Requiem 3. Graduale: Requiem aeternam
22. Requiem 4. Offertorium: Domine Iesu Christe
23. Requiem 5. Sanctus & Benedictus
24. Requiem 6. Agnus Dei I, II & III
25. Requiem 7.Communio: Lux aeterna
26. Requiem 8. Responsorium: Libera me
27. Non mortui
28. Sitivit anima mea
29. Mulier quae erat
30. Nos autem gloriari

Alonso Lobo (Seville, c.1555-1617)
31. Versa est in luctum
32. Credo quod Redemptor
33. Vivo ego, dicit Dominus
34. Ave Maria

Requiem, vol 1 & 2 – 2005
The Tallis Scholars
Peter Phillips, director

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Duarte Lobo (c.1565 – 1646) – Missa pro defunctis (1621) & Manuel Cardoso (c.1566 – 1650) – Missa pro defunctis (1625)

Portuguese Requiem Masses
Schola Cantorum of Oxford
1992

The flowering of Portuguese polyphony came in the first half of the seventeenth century with composers such as Estêvão de Brito, Filipe de Magalhães, Duarte Lôbo, and Manuel Cardoso. The early years of the century had witnessed many musical innovations (for example the Baroque genre of opera and the experiments of Monteverdi) and the Portuguese composers worked these developments into the polyphonic traditions of the so-called stile antico to produce particularly expressive interpretations of the texts through freer use of dissonance.

Duarte Lôbo began studying music at Évora with Manuel Mendes. He was appointed mestre da capela at Lisbon Cathedral in 1594 and remained there until his death in 1646. His six volumes of liturgical music prove him to be one of the leading Portuguese exponents of the polyphonic style. The Missa pro defunctis of 1621 skilfully retains the polyphonic style of Palestrina alongside the more modern dissonances, setting the sombre text almost in the style of his Spanish counterpart Victoria. Seven voices weave a contrapuntal web around the plainchant — itself often a paraphrase of the original chant — and the resulting eight parts sing variously all together, as two choirs, and in reduced combinations, thereby creating a unique style out of seemingly anachronistic components.

Manuel Cardoso was trained as a chair boy, also in Évora. After taking his vows in 1589 he became a member of a Carmelite order in Lisbon and was employed by the future King John IV, the Duke of Barcelos, from 1618 until 1625. His Missa pro defunctis was written in the last year of this period and is perhaps even more explicit in its evocation of Victoria’s own six-part setting of the same text. The chant in both is placed in one of the soprano parts rather than the more usual tenor, and a slow harmonic pace is created by using the chant in semibreves and the counterpoint in minims. Only occasionally are these note lengths halved — as at the words Libera eas de are leonis (‘Release them from the lion’s mouth’) in the Offertorium — to bring an increase of momentum.

Jeremy Summerly was a choral scholar at New College, Oxford from where he graduated in 1982. For the next seven years he worked as a Studio Manager with BBC Radio. It was during this time that he became Director of the Edington Festival Consort and founded the Oxford Camerata. In 1989 he left the BBC in order to join the Royal Academy of Music as a lecturer in the department of Academic Studies and in 1990 he was appointed conductor of Schola Cantorum of Oxford. He is now in considerable demand as a conductor and recently signed a long-term contract with Naxos to record 16th- and 17th-century music with the Oxford Camerata and Schola Cantorum of Oxford.

Schola Cantorum of Oxford is Oxford University’s longest-running and most celebrated chamber choir. Much in demand for appearances at major music festivals in Britain and abroad Schola Cantorum has been conducted by Leonard Bernstein, Gustav Leonhardt, Sir Colin Davis, and Sir Neville Marriner as well as by Britten, Tippett, and Stravinsky in performances of their own music.

(extraido do encarte)

Palhina: ouça 02. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 2. Kyrie com De Profundis Ensemble Vocal e Instrumental.

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Portuguese Requiem Masses
Duarte Lôbo (Portugal, c1565-1646; Latinized as Eduardus Lupus)
01. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 1. Introitus
02. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 2. Kyrie
03. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 3. Graduale
04. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 4. Offertorium
05. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 5. Sanctus
06. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 6. Agnus Dei
07. Missa pro defunctis (1621) – 7. Communio

Frei Manuel Cardoso (Portugal, 1566-1650)
08. Missa pro defunctis (1625) – 1. Introitus
09. Missa pro defunctis (1625) – 2. Kyrie
10. Missa pro defunctis (1625) – 3. Graduale
11. Missa pro defunctis (1625) – 4. Offertorium
12. Missa pro defunctis (1625) – 5. Sanctus
13. Missa pro defunctis (1625) – 6. Agnus Dei
14. Missa pro defunctis (1625) – 7. Communio

Portuguese Requiem Masses – 1992
Schola Cantorum of Oxford
Director: Jeremy Summerly
Recorded in the Chapel of New College, Oxford on 16th and 17th March, 1992

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Avicenna

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Portuguese Polyphony – Ars Nova

Portuguese Polyphony

Portugal was historically by no means isolated from the mainstream of European culture, although the earlier periods of Portuguese polyphony may be relatively little known. There were, nevertheless, monastic and ecclesiastical connections with other parts of Europe, and, of course, with Rome, while the proximity of Spain, most evident in the golden age of Portuguese polyphony, ensured that Portugal was part of the wider European tradition of polyphony, with an important fifteenth century centre in the Royal Chapel, reflected also in the music of cathedrals and choir-schools, notably, in the sixteenth century, at Évora.

Among the earlier of Portuguese composers to win a wider reputation, particularly in Spain, was Pedro de Escobar (c.1465-1535), convincingly identified by Robert Stevenson with Pedro do Porto or Pedro del Puerto, employed at the Spanish Royal Chapel of Queen Isabella I and later in Seville. His motet Clamabat autem mulier (But there cried out a woman) won considerable popularity, to be used by Gil Vicente in his play Auto da Cananea in 1534, arranged for solo vihuela by the Spanish composer Mudarra, and transported to the New World, notably to Guatemala, where two unattributed manuscripts of the work are found.

Palhinha: ouça 15. Clamabat autem mulier

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Bartolomeo Trosylho (c.1500 – c.1567), his name variously spelt as Trosilho or Truxillo, was a singer in the Royal Chapel of Dom João III, becoming master of the chapel in 1548. Although the heading of the manuscript containing Circumdederunt me (My enemies have surrounded me) is pro defunctis trosylho (for the dead, Trosylho), the text is in fact the Introit for Septuagesima Sunday. Trosylho’s richly polyphonic setting is for four voices.

Manuel da Fonseca (fl.1540) is recorded as having been mestre da capela at the Cathedral of Braga in 1544. Betweeen 1542 and 1543 he seems to have been mestre da capela to the king’s son Dom Duarte and is chiefly known for his Liber Introitus, a copy of which, dated 1615, still survives in Braga. Beata viscera Mariae (Blessed be the womb of Mary) is not now an Introit in the Roman rite, though the first lines are used as the Communion verse for Mass on Feasts of the Blessed Virgin. It might be supposed that it was originally an Introit for a votive mass to Our Lady, perhaps in the Braga rite, which has now been discontinued following various liturgical reforms. It is based on the relevant plainchant in the bass, with the other three voices weaving a texture around its steady and even progress.

It was not until the beginning of the seventeenth century that the work of Portuguese polyphonic composers began to be known more widely. The most famous three, Duarte Lobo (c.1565-1646), Manuel Cardoso (1566-1650), and Filipe de Magalhães (c.1571-1652) were all pupils of Manuel Mendes (c.1547-1605) at Évora, an important cathedral and university city in eastern Portugal. All three also became very successful musicians after moving to the capital, Lisbon.

The youngest of the group, Filipe de Magalhães, was reputedly the favourite pupil of Mendes, whom he succeeded at Évora. He later moved to Lisbon, where he was choirmaster at the Misericórdia and master of music in the Royal Chapel. He is regarded as being a highly accomplished composer, capable of an unparalleled smoothness of polyphonic style and elegance of vocal line. This can be heard in his four-part Vidi aquam (l beheld the water), a piece to be sung during the procession and sprinkling of holy water at the beginning of Mass in Paschal time, and in his six-part Commissa mea pavesco (I tremble at my sins), a verse from the third responsory at Matins in the Office for the Dead.

The Mass O Soberana luz (O sovereign light), its title a possible reference to King Philip IV of Spain, was included in the Liber Missarum of Magalhães, published by Craesbeck in 1636. This publication begins with the setting of Vidi aquam and ends with Commissa mea pavesco. Although the first four notes of the tenor part in several movements of the Mass are identical with the plainsong Mass Cum jubilo, for feasts of the Blessed Virgin, the rest of the line is different. It is more probable that this is a parody Mass, derived from another composition, since the opening tenor theme is always presented with two descending lines in upper parts, often in thirds. These materials are variously treated, sometimes with contrasting material, but they can be clearly heard in the openings of the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei. Another feature of this Mass is the continued use of contrast between sections which use longer notes and those where the rhythms are much faster and livelier. This would point to a source, perhaps a lost villancico, where there might have been this kind of contrast, possibly between the copla (stanza) and the estribillo (refrain).

Duarte Lobo became mestre da capela at the Cathedral in Lisbon. Testimony to the wider popularity of his music may be seen in the publication of his music by Plantin in Antwerp, his Christmas Responsories in the Opuscula of 1602, followed by a book of sixteen Magnificats in 1605 and books of Masses in 1621 and 1639. Both Audivi vocem de caelo, (l heard a voice from Heaven), a six-voice setting of a verse and response for Lauds from the Office for the Dead, and Pater Peccavi (Father I have sinned) were included in the 1621 volume. Lobo remained the only one of the Évora composers to have his music printed by Plantin.

Frei Manuel Cardoso was born in Fronteira in 1566 and professed as a Carmelite friar in Lisbon in 1589. In 1605 he too completed a book of Magnificats and began a long period of correspondence with Plantin with a view to having this published in Antwerp. The fee demanded by Plantin, however, was too high and instead he gave the work to Peter Craesbeck, a former apprentice of Plantin, a printer now established in Lisbon. The book was eventually printed and published in 1613. Cardoso had connections with the Portuguese and Spanish royal families, with the future King Dom João IV possibly his pupil and later certainly his patron. One of the features of Cardoso’s style is his consistent use of augmented chords, particularly in four-part writing. Most scholars see this as an absorption of Baroque harmonic practice into sixteenth century style. Two eariy instances can be heard in the six-part Magnificat Secundi Toni at the words (salu)ta(ri meo). Although the final Sicut erat (As it was in the beginning) has no instances of a full augmented chord, every other movement has at least one, and there are no fewer than nine in the four-part Esurientes (He has filled the hungry).

in 1648, Craesbeck printed Cardoso’s Livro de Varios Motetes, consisting mainly of pieces for the Holy Week liturgy. The Lamentatio on the present recording is the second Lesson for Matins (1st Nocturn) on Maundy Thursday. Cardoso’s setting for six voices uses only the Vau and Zain verses, omitting those given as Heth and Teth. The work concludes with Jerusalem, Jerusalem, convertere ad Dominum Deum tuum (Jerusalem, Jerusalem, turn to thy Lord).

Ars Nova

The vocal group Ars Nova is one of the most distinguished chamber choirs in Scandinavia in the field of early and new music. The twelve singers of the choir and the director Bo Holten have produced a series of internationally acclaimed compact discs and have given more than 650 concerts and broadcasts in Scandinavia, the rest of Europel Israel and Japan. The group was founded in 1979. Since 1990 Ars Nova has been the first professional choir in Denmark fully financed by private sponsors and foundations. These are Bikuben Bank and the Danish Ministry of Cultural Affairs and Foundation of Culture.

Ars Nova has been a pioneer in the performance of the work of Renaissance composers and in the field of modern music has concentrated its attention on compositions of the last 25 years, with work by distinguished Scandinavian composers as well as performing some 120 new works by composers such as Górecki, Pärt and Takemitsu. In 1991 the choir won the Danish Grammy Award for its recording of sacred music by Nicolas Gombert and in 1992 a Diapason d’or gold medal in France for the best classical compact disc, a recording of motets and chansons by Josquin des Prez.
(extraído do encarte)

Portuguese Polyphony
Frei Manuel Cardoso (Portugal, 1566-1650)/Bible – Old Testament
01. Lamentatio
Frei Manuel Cardoso (Portugal, 1566-1650)
02. Magnificat secundi toni
Duarte Lôbo (Portugal, c1565-1646; Latinized as Eduardus Lupus)
03. Audivi vocem de caelo
04. Pater peccavi

Filipe de Magalhães (Portugal, c1571-1652)
05. Vidi aquam
Filipe de Magalhães (Portugal, c1571-1652)/Mass Text
06. Missa O Soberana luz 1. Kyrie
07. Missa O Soberana luz 2. Gloria
08. Missa O Soberana luz 3. Credo
09. Missa O Soberana luz 4. Sanctus
10. Missa O Soberana luz 5. Benedictus
11. Missa O Soberana luz 6. Agnus Dei

Filipe de Magalhães (Portugal, c1571-1652)
12. Commissa mea pavesco
Manuel da Fonseca (fl.1540)
13. Beata viscera
Bartolomeo Trosylho (c.1500-c.1567)
14. Circumdederunt me
Pedro de Escobar (c.1465–after 1535), a.k.a. Pedro do Porto
15. Clamabat autem mulier

Portuguese Polyphony – 1992
Vocal group Ars Nova
Bo Holten, director
Recorded at Kastelskirken, Copenhagen, on 10th and 12th October 1992

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Boa audição.

Avicenna

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